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23rd European Nephrology Conference , will be organized around the theme “The Imminent of Nephrology: Current & Advance Approaches to treat Kidney Diseases”
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The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures, found sideways the posterior muscular wall of the abdominal cavity. The left kidney is located marginally more superior than the right kidney due to the larger size of the liver on the right side of the body. The upper poles are typically oriented more medially and posteriorly than the lower poles. When compare to the other abdominal organs, the kidneys are lie behind the peritoneum that lines the abdominal cavity and are thus considered to be retroperitoneal organs. The ribs and muscles of the back protect the kidneys from external injury.
The kidneys serve significant functions, including filtration and excretion of metabolic waste products, regulation of necessary electrolytes, fluid, and acid-base balance and stimulation of red blood cell production. They also assist to regulate blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, regulating reabsorption of water and upholding intravascular volume. The kidneys also reabsorb glucose and amino acids and have hormonal functions thru erythropoietin, calcitriol and activation of vitamin D.
Nephrology is the scientific study of kidneys, predominantly their functions and ailments. The preservation of kidney health and the treatment of kidney disease from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy; Nephrology also studies systemic disorders that affect the kidneys, such as diabetes and autoimmune disease and systemic diseases that arise as a result of kidney disease.
- Track 2-1Experimental Nephrology
- Track 2-2Acute and Chronic Renal diseases
- Track 2-3Diabetic Nephropathy
- Track 2-4Dialysis
- Track 2-5Hemofiltration
Pediatric Nephrology delivers care and management for broods with various kidney diseases, including Nephrotic syndrome, urinary tract infections, hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, electrolyte disorders, complications of kidney stones and enuresis conditions.
If your child has kidney or urinary tract disease, bladder problems, kidney stones or high blood pressure, a Pediatric nephrologist has the exceptional skills and experience to treat your child. Pediatric nephrologists treat children from infancy through late puberty and in some centers up to young adulthood.
Pediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage many disorders distressing the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, hypertension, genetic kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections and abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein. They also know how to assess and treat problems with growth and development that are specifically related to chronic kidney disease.
- Track 3-1Pediatric Renal Failure
- Track 3-2Pediatric Chronic Hemodialysis
- Track 3-3Advances in Pediatric Kidney Operation
- Track 3-4Pediatric Nephritis
- Track 3-5Pediatric Kidney Stones
- Track 3-6Pediatric Kidney Dialysis
- Track 3-7Kidney Care in Children
- Track 3-8Pediatric Renal Transplantation
- Track 3-9Pediatric Renal Nutrition
- Track 3-10Pediatric Urology
Kidneys are vital to having a healthy body. They are essentially responsible for sieving waste products, excess water, and other impurities out of the blood.
Kidney disease ensues when your kidneys become impaired and not able to perform their function. Damage of the kidney may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and various other chronic conditions. Kidney disease can lead to other health problems, including weak bones, nerve damage, and malnutrition. If the disease gets worse over time, your kidneys may stop working completely. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons.
Generally kidney diseases are won’t go away for one time diagnosis. The best way to uphold kidney health is to implement a healthy lifestyle. Kidney diseases can get worse over time. It may even lead to kidney failure. Some risk factors for kidney disease, such as age, gender, ethnicity or family history are impossible to control. However, there are methods you can take to help prevent kidney disease,
Drink plenty of water
Control blood sugar if you have diabetes
Control blood pressure
Reduce salt intake
List of Some Kidney Diseases
- Track 4-1Acute Kidney Failure/Acute Kidney Injury
- Track 4-2Nephrotic Syndrome
- Track 4-3Kidney Stones, Nephrolithiasis
- Track 4-4IgA Nephropathy
- Track 4-5Glomerular Diseases
- Track 4-6Fabry’s Disease
- Track 4-7Diabetic Kidney Disease
- Track 4-8Chronic Kidney Disease or End Stage Renal Disease
- Track 4-9Cardiorenal syndrome
- Track 4-10Nephrotoxicity
- Track 4-11Renal Failure
- Track 4-12β-Thalassemia Renal Disease
- Track 4-13Analgesic Nephropathy
- Track 4-14Alport Syndrome
- Track 4-15Acute Tubular Necrosis
- Track 4-16Sickle Cell Nephropathy
Many diseases affect kidney function by offensive the glomeruli, the tiny units within the kidney where blood is cleaned. Glomerular diseases comprise many conditions with a variety of genetic and environmental causes, but they fall into two major categories.
Glomerular diseases damage the glomeruli, allowing protein and sometimes red blood cells drip into the urine. Sometimes a glomerular disease also hinders with the clearance of waste products by the kidney, so they begin to build up in the blood. Furthermore, loss of blood proteins like albumin in the urine can outcome in a fall in their level in the bloodstream. In normal blood, albumin acts like a sponge, drawing extra fluid from the body into the bloodstream, where it residues until the kidneys remove it. But when albumin leaks into the urine, the blood loses its capacity to engross extra fluid from the body. Fluid can accumulate outside the cardiovascular system in the face, hands, feet, or ankles and cause swelling.
Glomerular disease sometimes develops rapidly after an infection in other parts of the body.
- Track 5-1Glomerulonephritis
- Track 5-2Acute post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
- Track 5-3Bacterial Endocarditis
- Track 5-4Glomerulosclerosis
- Track 5-5Focal segmental Glomerulosclerosis
- Track 5-6Membranous Nephropathy
Kidney transplant is one of the most common organ transplant surgeries executed nowadays.
A kidney transplant is a surgical method that’s done to treat Kidney Failure. This surgery is a lifesaving choice for thousands of patients with End Stage Renal Disease. The kidneys filter waste from the blood and eliminate it from the body through your urine. They also help to maintain your body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. If your kidneys stop functioning, waste builds up in your body and can make you very sick.
A kidney transplant is a treatment for kidney failure; it is not a cure, so need to take medicines every day to make sure your immune system doesn't reject the new kidney. A working transplanted kidney does a healthier job of filtering wastes and keeping you healthy than dialysis. Though, a kidney transplant isn’t for everybody.
Current Issues in Kidney Transplantation
- Track 6-1Kidney Allocation Policies
- Track 6-2Xenotransplantation
- Track 6-3Transplant Tourism
- Track 6-4Tolerance
- Track 6-5Kidney Transplantation Clinical Trials
Dialysis is an artificial technique of filtering the blood. It is used when somebody’s kidneys have failed or are close to deteriorating. Many people with late-stage kidney disease must go on dialysis enduringly or until a donor kidney is found.
In hemodialysis, the blood is pumped through a distinctive machine that filters out waste products and fluid. You can perform the hemodialysis event at your home. Most people have three sittings per week, with each sitting lasting three to five hours. However, hemodialysis can also be done in petite, more common sessions.
The common side effects of hemodialysis are low blood pressure, muscle cramping, and itching.
In peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum stands in for the kidneys. A tube is embedded and used to fill the abdomen with a fluid called dialysate. Waste products are in the blood flow from the peritoneum into the dialysate. The dialysate is then drained from the abdomen.
There are two methods of peritoneal dialysis: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, where the abdomen is filled and drained several times during the day and Continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis, which uses a mechanism to cycle the fluid in and out of the abdomen at night while the person sleeps.
The most common side effects of peritoneal dialysis are contagions in the abdominal cavity or in the area where the tube was embedded. Supplementary side effects may include weight gain and hernias.
- Track 7-1Hemodialysis
- Track 7-2Peritoneal Dialysis
- Track 7-3Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
- Track 7-4Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis
- Track 7-5Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis
Because the kidneys of individuals on dialysis are incapable to cope with excess fluid and other metabolic wastes, it is vital that the nutrient content of foods spent by these people is prudently composed. Individuals using dialysis often consume poor amounts of macronutrients, fluids and important micronutrients. Evidence suggests that the build-up of toxins that can occur with renal failure can also conquer the appetite. As a result, people being treated with dialysis frequently reduce the quantity of food they consume.
Metabolism is the chemical reactions involved in retentive the dwelling state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be fairly divided into classes,
Catabolism - the breakdown of molecules to acquire energy
Anabolism - the synthesis of all compounds needed through the cells.
The kidneys have many clearly distinct physiologic functions. Although their role as an excretory organ for drugs and chemicals and their polar metabolites is well defined, their immersion in the biotransformation of Xenobiotic is comparatively poorly understood.
High blood pressure can impair blood vessels in the kidneys, decreasing their ability to work properly. When the force of blood stream is high, blood vessels stretch so blood flows more easily. Eventually, this elongating scars and weakens blood vessels all over the body, including those in the kidneys.
If the kidneys blood vessels are damaged, they may stop eradicating wastes and extra fluid from the body. Further fluid in the blood vessels may then raise blood pressure even more, building a precarious cycle. And it shows the symptoms like swelling called Edema, which occurs when the kidneys cannot get rid of excessive fluid and salt. Edema can occur in the legs, feet or ankles and less frequently in the hands or face. Once kidney function diminutions further, symptoms can include…
Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
A kidney infection is one of the urinary tract infections (UTI). Most kidney infections are caused by bacteria or viruses that first infect the lower urinary tract. Then, the infection travels upstream to one or both kidneys, which are part of the upper urinary tract.
In some cases, the kidney infection will occurs after surgery if bacteria enter into the body during the process and travel through your blood to the kidneys.
A kidney infection requires quick medical care. If the medical care is taken properly, a kidney infection can permanently damage your kidneys or the bacteria can spread to your bloodstream and cause a life-threatening septicity.
Onco-Nephrology (Kidney Cancer)
Onco-nephrology comprises the extensive range of kidney disorders that can arise in patients with cancer. Beyond cancers of the kidney, non-renal cancers can have renal complications, and anticancer therapies, including chemotherapy.
Kidney cancer also called renal cancer is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant and grow out of control, forming a tumor. More or less all kidney tumours first appear in the lining of tiny tubes in the kidney. This kind of kidney cancer is termed as renal cell carcinoma. The most of kidney cancers are found afore they spread to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat fruitfully.
- Track 10-1Pyelonephritis
- Track 10-2Kidney Cancer
The urinary system is the body's drainage system for eliminating wastes and extra water. It comprises kidneys, ureters, a bladder and a urethra. Urinary Tract Infections (UTI’s) are the second most common type of infection in the human body.
Urologic diseases or conditions consist of urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder control problems and prostate problems. Some urologic disorders last only a short time, while others are lifelong.
You may have a UTI if you notice
- Pain or burning when you urinate
- Fever, tiredness, or shakiness
- An urge to urinate often
- Pressure in your lower belly
- Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy or reddish
- Pain in your back or side below the ribs
People of any age or gender possible to acquire UTIs, but women are more susceptible to get UTIs as men. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of any fragment of the urinary system. Infections are in the bladder and urethras are the most common. They are certainly curable and infrequently lead to more health problems. However, if the infections are untreated, these infections can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure.
- Track 11-1Urethritis
- Track 11-2Stress Urinary Incontinence
- Track 11-3Bladder Cancer
- Track 11-4Urethral Cancer
- Track 11-5Reconstructive Urology
- Track 11-6Pediatric Urology & Female Urology
- Track 11-7Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract
- Track 11-8Obstruction of The Urinary Tract
- Track 11-9Urinary Abnormalities in Children
- Track 11-10Urinary Abnormalities in Children
- Track 11-11Cystitis
- Track 11-12Urothelial Tumors
Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly lose the ability to remove excess salts, fluids, and waste materials from the blood. This elimination is the core, kidneys’ main function. Body fluids can upswing to dangerous levels when kidneys lose their filtering capacity. The disorder will also cause electrolytes and waste material to accumulate in your body, which can also be life-threatening.
Acute kidney failure is also termed as acute kidney injury or acute renal failure. It’s common in general public who are previously in the hospital. It may develop promptly over a few hours. Acute kidney failure can be life-threatening and involves intensive treatment. However, it may be rescindable.
Some of the complications of acute kidney failure include:
- Chronic kidney failure
- Heart damage
- Nervous system damage
- End-stage renal failure
- High blood pressure
Chronic kidney disease is a long-term disorder that doesn’t recover over time. It is commonly caused by high blood pressure. In the early phases of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become superficial until your kidney function is significantly reduced.
Chronic kidney disease typically gets worse slowly and symptoms may not appear until kidneys are critically damaged. In the late stages of CKD, if close to kidney failure, may notice symptoms that are caused by waste and extra fluid building up in your body.
Treatment for chronic kidney disease emphases on slowing the progress of the kidney damage, usually by regulating the underlying cause, chronic kidney disease can develop to end-stage kidney failure, which is lethal without dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Kidneys are affecting by more than 60 genetic causes either directly or indirectly. Genetic kidney conditions range from comparatively common conditions to very rare diseases. In some are associated with mild symptoms and others can cause serious health conditions.
Genetic disorders of the kidney include cystic syndromes, metabolic syndromes and immune glomerulonephritis. Cystic diseases comprise autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease. Neonates with enlarged, cystic kidneys should be evaluated for Polycystic Kidney Diseases.
Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that causes numerous cysts to produce in the kidneys. These tumours can obstruct with kidney function and cause kidney failure.
Some of the genetic conditions
- Track 14-1Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Track 14-2Cystinosis
- Track 14-3Tuberous Sclerosis
- Track 14-4Hereditary Interstitial Kidney Disease
- Track 14-5Lowe Syndrome
- Track 14-6Collagen-related kidney diseases including Alport Syndrome
- Track 14-7Gitelman and Bartter Syndromes
- Track 14-8Thin Basement Membrane Disease
- Track 14-9Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Track 14-10Nephronophthisis
Tubulointerstitial diseases are clinically dissimilar conditions that share comparable features of tubular and interstitial damage. In severe and sustained cases, the entire kidney may turn out to be complicated, with glomerular dysfunction and even renal failure.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a primary injury to renal tubules and interstititum resultant in impaired renal function. The critical form is most often due to allergic drug responses or to infections. The prolonged condition form occurs with a different array of causes, including inherited or metabolic conditions, obstructive uropathy, and chronic exposure to conservational toxins or to definite drugs and herbs. Diagnosis is recommended by history and urinalysis and often confirmed by biopsy. Treatment and prognosis vary by the etiologic and potential reversibility of the syndrome at the time of diagnosis.
- Track 15-1Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
- Track 15-2Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
- Track 15-3Analgesic Nephropathy
- Track 15-4Metabolic Nephropathies
- Track 15-5Heavy Metal Nephropathy
- Track 15-6Reflux Nephropathy
- Track 15-7Myeloma Kidney
A nephrology nurse is a nursing proficient that focus on kidney health. They treat and care for patients that are suffering from kidney diseases as well as those that are at risk of increasing kidney problems. Certain medical complications that nephrology nurses may happenstance include polycystic kidney disease, renal cysts, obstructions, and kidney stones. Since there may be a lot of factors that affect the health of the kidneys, nephrology nurses will typically work with all different types of patients, including children and adults. Nephrology nurses play a significant part in assessing, diagnosing, educating, and treating patients who have advanced or are at risk of developing kidney related problems.
The focussed care of patients whose conditions are lethal and who require complete care and endless monitoring, usually in intensive care units are also known as intensive care.
The care of the critically ill with kidney disease characterizes a growing proportion of patients treated by nephrologists in the hospital. As a result, critical care nephrology, melding together the expertise of nephrologists and intensivists, has emerged as a distinct sub-discipline during the past decade.
Kidney stones are of another collective kidney problem. They occur when minerals and other substances in the blood crystallize in the kidneys, developing solid masses. Kidney stones usually come out of the body through urination. Passing kidney stones can be awfully painful, but they rarely cause significant problems.
A kidney stone is a solid portion of material that forms in the kidney from constituents in the urine. It may be as minor as a particle of sand or as large as a nugget. Most of the kidney stones are passes out of the body without help from a physician. But occasionally a stone will not go away. It may chance to get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great throbbing. And kidney stones can be removed with medicines or shock waves. Shock waves are with a scope interleaved through the tube that carries urine out of the body, called the urethra or with surgery.
The following may be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor's help:
Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away
Blood in your urine
Fever and chills
Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
A burning feeling when you urinate
Nephrotic syndrome is a disorder marked by very high levels of protein in the urine; low levels of protein in the blood, swelling, especially around the eyes, feet and hands; and high cholesterol. Nephrotic syndrome is a set of indications, not a disease in itself. It can occur with several infections, so prevention relies on regulating the diseases that cause it. Treatment of Nephrotic syndrome focuses on ascertaining and treating the fundamental cause, if possible and dropping high cholesterol, blood pressure and protein in the urine through diet, medication or both. Nephrotic syndrome may go away once the essential cause, if identified, is treated. Though, often a kidney disease is the underlying cause and cannot be treated. In these cases, the kidneys may progressively lose their ability to filter wastes and excess water from the blood. If kidney failure follows, the patient will need to be on dialysis or have a kidney transplant.
The kidneys plays a significant role in sustaining healthy bone mass and structure by balancing phosphorus and calcium levels in the blood. Healthy kidneys trigger a form of vitamin D that a person consumes in food, turning it into calcitriol, the active form of the vitamin. Calcitriol helps the kidneys uphold blood calcium levels and endorses the formation of bone.
Previously, health care providers used the word “Renal Osteodystrophy” to define mineral and hormone disturbances caused by kidney disease. These days, renal osteodystrophy only describes bone problems that result from mineral and bone disorder in CKD. Health care providers might use the phrase “chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder,” or CKD-MBD, to refer the condition that affects the bones, heart, and blood vessels.
Mineral and bone disorder in CKD occurs when injured kidneys and abnormal hormone levels cause calcium and phosphorus levels in a person’s blood to be out of equilibrium. Mineral and bone disorder commonly occurs in people with CKD and disturbs most people with kidney failure in receipt of dialysis.
Geriatric Nephrology is the branch of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine that deals with kidney diseases. It is an emergent subspecialty of geriatrics. Patients who are alive longer may get diseases that accelerate chronic kidney disease, which regularly remains undetected until patients are challenged with the sudden need for dialysis.
Geriatric Nephrology aims to study of assess the clinical efficacy of total and regional bone densitometry in a large Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) populace and to determine the clinical, biological and radiographic variables that best acknowledged osteopenia CAPD patients.
Factors which affects Geriatrics in Kidney Diseases
- Age related Kidney changes
- Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR, rGFR)
- Homeostasis Maintenance in Elderly Kidneys
- Medications & Treatment Methods
Anaemia is a common disorder in kidney disease and other conditions where there are not enough blood cells or not enough haemoglobin to carry oxygen around the body.
Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney disease the permanent, partial loss of kidney functions. Anemia might begin to develop in the initial stages of CKD, when someone has 20 to 50% of normal kidney function. Anemia tends to get worse as CKD progresses. Most people, who have complete loss of kidney function or kidney failure, have anemia. A person has kidney failure when he or she needs a kidney transplantation or dialysis in order to live.
Kidney disease treatment usually focuses on controlling the fundamental cause of the disease. This means physician will help you better manage blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Usually kidney disease does not have signs or symptoms in early stages. Testing is the only way to know how the kidneys are performing. It is important to get tested for kidney disease if having the key risk factors - diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a family history of kidney failure.
Below class of drugs that are regularly used in general:
- Track 22-1Anti-hypertensives to control your blood pressure
- Track 22-2Diuretics to increase your urine output
- Track 22-3Medications to keep your heart healthy
- Track 22-4Phosphate binders to control your phosphate levels
- Track 22-5Vitamin D to maintain strong bones and other benefits
- Track 22-6Injections, including erythropoietin and iron, to control your anaemia
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